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Simla Agreement In 1972

Donald Trump`s offer to help India and Pakistan resolve the Kashmir issue became a major controversy after India rejected the US president`s claim that Prime Minister Narendra Modi had requested it. As the U.S. government tries to downplay Trump`s remarks by calling the Kashmir issue “bilateral” to “discuss India and Pakistan,” the focus has shifted again to previous “bilateral agreements,” whose 1972 Simla Agreement (or Shimla Agreement), signed by then-Indian and Pakistani Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , for friendly relations between the two countries. The international and regional context after 1971 had made the realization of some kind of agreement an important political objective for Gandhi and his national security team. After a successful war that liberated Bangladesh, politicians tried to continue to submit India`s status by showing a credible attempt at peace. Of course, India`s image had to be balanced by concrete results. The most desirable outcome would have been a final resolution in Kashmir, which bypasses the de facto position administered by both sides. The evidence is that policymakers have attempted to address some of the deep roots of the Indo-Pakistani conflict in Kashmir, seen as a direct manifestation of Pakistan`s national identity and not as a normal territorial impasse between states. P.N. Haksar, Gandhi`s senior foreign policy adviser, later wrote that India`s approach was based on “the realization that Pakistan continues to have an unresolved crisis of its national identity.” 1971 paved the way for an alternative future for Pakistan. D.P.

Dhar, another great confidant of Gandhi and India`s chief negotiator, also seemed to support Haksar`s core spirit. In his telegram to Haksar in March 1972, Dhar said: “The colony (Simla) will not be between the victor and the vanquished, because such a colony has given rise to new conflicts and more violent conflicts in history. An agreement on the contrary… should also appear as the end of a chapter of criticism between two alienated brothers.┬áBut we now also know that Dhar was less enthusiastic about the prospect of change in Pakistan than in ensuring that India was seen as a credible attempt to maintain peace. Most importantly, he wanted India to make obvious profits during the negotiation process. For Dhar, without a solution to the Kashmir issue, “there could be no hope for lasting peace in the subcontinent.” Indira Gandhi`s reputation for intelligent state art is widely celebrated, even by her most outspoken critics.

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